Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Women and Entrepreneurship in Saudi Arabia

Reports on Saudi Arabia entrepreneurship suggest that women get high level support. In fact, the Kingdom has been leading in the Arab region in terms of regulatory reforms related to this field. This progression is a good indicator for the entire kingdom given that women can make significant contributions to the economy. The provision for an integrated study on the history and development of women entrepreneurship as well as the opportunities and challenges in place can be a great motivation to women entrepreneurs in Saudi Arabia.Advertising We will write a custom proposal sample on Women and Entrepreneurship in Saudi Arabia specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Since the historical elections of two businesswomen to the board of the Jeddah Chamber of Commerce and Industry (JCCI) in 2005, the history of women entrepreneurship became significant. These women who were also entrepreneurs changed the face of Saudi business and encouraged ec onomic participation of females. This participation led to other landmark developments such as the 2010 appointment of two businesswomen to the board of the Eastern Province Chamber of Commerce and Industry (EPCCI), not to mention the election of a businesswoman to serve as the Vice Chair of JCCI for the first time (Vaid, 2011). Revisiting such entrepreneurial developments can be a great motivation to the upcoming women entrepreneurs. Hence, this research will review such histories to point out the circumstances that these successful women have gone through. The purpose of this project is to focus on the development of women entrepreneurship in Saudi Arabia with an emphasis on why they chose to start their own businesses. It also identifies various opportunities and problems they face. A research conducted by Sadi and Al-Ghazali â€Å"doing business with impudence† in 2009 is the main motivating factor to research on women entrepreneurship in Saudi Arabia (Sadi Al-Ghazali, 2 009). The major aim of their research was to find out the reasons why Saudi women chose to venture in business as well as an examination of the approaches they made. In Saudi and the Arab region, few researches have been conducted to investigate the trends, opportunities and problems encountered by women entrepreneurs and the motivation they have in running their own businesses. The major aim of the project is to undertake an empirical approach to investigate the potential opportunities and challenges which women entrepreneurs face when venturing in Saudi Arabia.Advertising Looking for proposal on gender studies? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There is a pressing need to find ways through which upcoming entrepreneurs can be motivated to invest in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, this project will consider exploring the historical trends which have made Saudi women to invest in business. Although there is substantial development in wo men entrepreneurship in Saudi Arabia, Minkus-McKenna investigated ease of starting a business in MENA region and ranked Saudi Arabia below Israel. Although the country was ranked first in the ease of doing business, it is far much behind other MENA countries when it comes to women starting businesses. The rationale for conducting this research is that Saudi women are increasingly becoming active in entrepreneurship, yet they encounter unique challenges when compared to Saudi men. An investigation of Saudi laws relating to women reveal that they are to date restricted by custom to open their own businesses, buy property, drive and make investments in real estate. In fact, even the simplest duty of reporting a case to a police station must be accomplished by a male guardian (Abdullah, 2007, p.1). The so called women rights and freedoms are perceived to go against the very moral fiber of conventionalist culture and an ignorant departure from the teachings of Allah to the Muslim communi ty. When registering for a new business venture, the process is technically the same for both women and men entrepreneurs. The only law applying to ventures owned by women is to have all female workers in the assigned section of women with separate entrance and exit avenues; and a male manager in the section designated for men (Parker, 2007, p.1). Nonetheless, there have been changes in several decisions pertaining to the rights of Saudi women over the last several years. Until late, a female Saudi could not practice commercial activities without a male agent representing her in management and in handling the procedures for establishing a legal (Fakkar, 2007, p.1). However, it has been suggested that some Saudi women still complain that they require male agents to accomplish certain business tasks. These observations add to the motive to do the projected research. The project will start with reviewing the history of women entrepreneurship in Saudi Arabia. This will offer the opportu nity to highlight key women figures and their motivation to business.Advertising We will write a custom proposal sample on Women and Entrepreneurship in Saudi Arabia specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The project will then focus on identifying the business opportunities available for Saudi women and the problems they will certainly face when investing as well as making recommendation on how to exploit the opportunities while solving the problems effectively. Thus, the project is a way of motivating and encouraging upcoming Saudi women to venture into new businesses. In the recent past, a new interest has emerged to encourage women entrepreneurs in Saudi Arabia. In October 2010 for instance, the third exhibition for the Young Business Expo was specifically arranged for female Saudis in Jeddah at the International Exhibition Center (Monitor Group DSG, 2010). Learning institutions especially universities have engaged in activities th at encourage women to start business across the kingdom. International organizations such as Gulf Corporation Council have also embarked on a mission to support women especially in the gulf region where their involvement in business is very low. Therefore, as a response to these positive developments, this project is also intended to arm Saudi entrepreneurs with the necessary strategies to exploit business opportunities and solutions to the problems they will encounter when venturing. Methodology As noted before, this project is largely aimed at discussing the history and the presence of Saudi women entrepreneurs, investigating the business opportunities in place as well as the problems they will certainly encounter in venturing. It is also the aim of the study to recommend the best strategies to exploit the opportunities and most effective solutions to the problems. A review of the historical trends in women entrepreneurship is imperative because the field lacks enough theoretical and empirical perspectives which can give the necessary information on how to go about women growing their own businesses in Saudi Arabia. This lack of substantial information on women entrepreneurship calls for an inductive approach of research. Lichtman (2009) is of the opinion that an inductive approach should go with a qualitative research. In this project, the empirical intention is to investigate opportunities and problems encountered by Saudi women in growing their own businesses. It does not involve any measurable quality, hence makes the study qualitative.Advertising Looking for proposal on gender studies? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The justification for this study approach is that the project focuses on understanding the context within which it takes place and not focusing on a cause-and-effect relationship. It is imperative to avoid a rigid methodology in order to allow for an alternative explanation for what is going on. As Klenke (2008) links an inductive approach to positivism philosophy, the project will try to find out ways to enhance women entrepreneurship by analyzing the responses put forward by successful women entrepreneurs. Two methods will be adopted to collect data. The first method will be an online survey through questionnaires. This will ensure that the information collected from the participants is standard. The questionnaires will be administered online through email. This will make them available to the target groups who do not work at the same time and eliminate the risk of loss, mishandling and unintended access. An official at the Eastern Chamber of Commerce Center at Dammam will provide the needed direction to entrepreneurs to get their cooperation. However, the participants will send the filled questionnaire directly to a predetermined email address because some issues such as regulations and financing are sensitive to the government and funding institutions. The responses will be more favorable if the questionnaires are anonymous. The other method of extracting information will be drop-off and pick-up method that will still use questionnaires. A set of questionnaires will be handed to the business center in the Jeddah Chamber of Commerce. This method is adopted due to the proximity of the region to the researchers. This secondary source of information will act as the comparative tool for the outcomes of the Dammam case. This is important to ensure that the responses are varied and the sample represents the entire Saudi women population. Considering the size of the sample, it can be argued that certain suggestions may apply to a particular region and not the whol e kingdom. Therefore, a comparison is important to test this representation. Collins (2010, p.42) comments that a research project using an inductive approach is more likely to be concerned with the context in which activities are taking place and might mean that a small sample is more appropriate than a large sample. Therefore, the sample will consist of 75 Saudi women entrepreneurs; 50 will be from Damman and the rest from Jeddah. These participants will consist of Saudi women who have been successful in growing own businesses. They must be recognized by either the Eastern or Jeddah Chambers of Commerce and be willing to participate. Their businesses must also not be more than three years old. These conditions ensure that the project focuses on the current and relevant aspects under the study. Data Sources Primary Data Online survey through questionnaires Secondary Data Drop-off and pick-up questionnaires Literature Sources Publication on entrepreneurship history in Saudi Ara bia Saudi Government publications on women and business Publications on women entrepreneurship Publications on Saudi Arabia women entrepreneurship Publications on Saudi business policies Reports from business related agencies such as banks and markets Aspects of MBA Syllabus Used This project will apply modules involving various MBA aspects and in particular the courses in Entrepreneurship, finance and strategic management as well as Management of change. Reference Abdullah, S. 2007, Jowhara Al-Angari: strengthening Saudi Women’s rights. Web. Collins, H. 2010, Creative Research: The Theory and Practice of Research for the Creative Industries. AVA Publishing, Worthing. Fakkar, G. 2007, Removing obstacles to women’s business. Web. Klenke, K. 2008, Qualitative research in the study of leadership. Emerald Group Publishing, London. Lichtman, M. 2009, Qualitative Research in Education: A User’s Guide. SAGE, Los Angeles. Minkus-McKenna, D. 2009, Women entrepreneurs in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Web. Monitor Group DSG 2010, Growing aspirations: supporting women’s entrepreneurship in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf. Web. Parker, M. 2007, Women ‘own’ some 1,500 companies. Web. Sadi, M. A. Al-Ghazali, M. 2010, ‘Doing business with impudence: a focus on women entrepreneurship in Saudi Arabia.’ African Journal of Business Management, vol.4 no.1, pp. 1-11. Vaid, I. Y. 2011, ‘Saudi women and entrepreneurship opportunities in architecture and interior design.’ Middle East Studies Online Journal, vol.4 no.3, pp.445-459. This proposal on Women and Entrepreneurship in Saudi Arabia was written and submitted by user Stephanie Vargas to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Saturday, November 23, 2019

The Mighty Pen Persuasive Writing

The Mighty Pen Persuasive Writing The Mighty Pen: Persuasive Writing It’s said, â€Å"The pen is mightier than the sword.† To be sure, many heroes across the ages have inspired quiet revolutions with little more than words. Countless writers have impacted readers with their gift. Writing is a powerful tool for conveying thoughts, defending ideas, and persuading audience. What Comprises Persuasive Writing Persuasive writing is a serious form of writing about a debatable topic. Writing persuasively requires that you have a strong idea for which you are fighting. Persuasive writing benefits: Lawyers Politicians Activists Researchers Forms of Persuasive Writing While you often find persuasive pieces in the editorial sections of newspapers or magazines, they can also take the form of: Essays Research Papers Presentations Speeches Tips for Persuasive Writing: Choose a Stance When writing a persuasive piece, make your message clear so readers know the side you’re taking. Flip-flopping your stance create audience mistrust. Choose a side and defend it with well-researched facts. Rely on Facts Even if you are defending an opinion, it must be an educated one, based on hard truths. Find scientific studies and academic articles to back up your argument. Look for Credible Sources When choosing facts to support your argument, use credible sources. Quoting paid blogs or outdated research materials will repel those expecting a serious piece of writing. Credible sources of information may include, but are not limited to: Academic journals Official websites of credible institutions Recent peer-reviewed research papers Experts in the field â€Å"Sandwich Techniques† Psychology suggests that people are more likely to remember beginnings and endings, rather than the middle. This is called the â€Å"primacy and recency† effect. The sandwich technique employs this effect. With this approach, strongest arguments are made first and last and less powerful arguments are placed in the middle. This way, you begin and end your piece with strength. Persuasive writing is a science and an art. It requires both technique and grace to craft a piece that can convince a reader. If you’re having trouble creating a persuasive essay, don’t fret. Call at (647) 436-7280 for assistance.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Innovation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 3

Innovation - Essay Example on X or Y worker; cafeterias, flexible working schedules as well as the 20% policy which allows each employee to make use of one day every week researching on a unique and innovative project of their own liking. Very few companies can afford such luxuries on their employees. Secondly, Google has built a product innovation culture. Thus numerous new products as well as services can be found from Google at present and engineers are persuaded to constantly create new ones. Google creates its own internal human resource together with talent management system, created on the conviction that Google can go on and do it â€Å"better.†Something that few organizations can afford to do (Carter & Ulrich, 2005). Some of Google’s products have gone on to become market leaders such as Google maps, Google Finance as well as Gmail which all penetrated the market with strong deep-rooted competition. Thus through strong execution and innovation every one of these products has taken on a remarkable market share in a very short length of time. Additionally when the corporation notices an incredible opportunity to penetrate via acquisition, it wastes no time and thus takes the plunge (Blogger and YouTube).Clearly Google’s long term victory is dependent on its ability to create a learning culture that embraces change, admits mistakes honestly, makes heavy investments in the winners and innovates continuously. Carter, L., & Ulrich, D. (2005). Best Practices in Leadership Development and Organization Change:How the Best Companies Ensure Meaningful Change and Sustainable Leadership. New York,NY: John Wiley &

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Animal Behavior on their Natal Territory Assignment

Animal Behavior on their Natal Territory - Assignment Example The reproductive success of a female mammal depends on a few factors such as safe territory, brood feeding area, and resources such as food availability (Stockley & Bro-Jorgenson, 2011, pg344). The male members of the mammalian species, on the other hand, wander far away from the nest in search of possible female mates who defend their own territories. Thus, we can say that the reproductive success among mammals depends largely on its female members. However, males of avian species are the ones that remain on or near the natal territory since in case of birds it is the quality of the† habitat that the male defends that determines the reproductive success† (Hill,1988,p379). Reproductive success among avian species depends on the male members and on the provisions available for the brood and attraction of female birds in the territory defended by the males. Therefore, remaining within or near the natal territorial range in case of male birds is more beneficial since they are able to attract females while in case of mammal males, remaining near natal territory is not beneficial since the reproductive success depends solely on the female members of mammalian species. 2.In  their  classic  paper  on  mating  systems,  Steve  Emlen  and  Lew  Oring  suggested  that  two  ecological  factors  could  promote  the  evolution  of  monogamy:  a  high  degree  of  synchrony  in  reproductive  cycling  within  a  population  and  a  highly  dispersed  distribution  of  receptive  females.  Try  to  reconstruct  the  logic  of  these  predictions  and  then  make  counterarguments  to  the  effect  that  synchronized  breeding  could  facilitate  the acquisition  of  multiple  mates  while  a  relatively  dense  population  of  receptive  females  might  actually  promote  monogamy.  

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Does the General Sales Tax Impact the Personal Consumption Expenditure Research Paper

Does the General Sales Tax Impact the Personal Consumption Expenditure - Research Paper Example This paper seeks to study the relationship between sales tax and individual consumer expenditure and saving. Table of Contents Table of Contents 2 1.0. Introduction 1Sales tax is part of consumption tax, tax on imposed on spending on goods or services in various states. Sales tax is usually imposed to buyers during the purchasing of goods or services. The sellers are the one who collect the tax. Tax rates vary from one state to another. In United States, the sales tax has been increasing drastically since 1997 and this has led to rise of prices of both services and commodities. The people who are affected indirectly by sales tax are the buyers. Their expenses rise per month forcing them to draw narrow budgets. This is the same in the whole world and the economies of many nations are going down. What it exported or imported is also highly taxed. Sales tax is different from value added tax because it is only imposed once at the retail level. Different states in United States have diffe rent tax rates. There are some jurisdictions in these states that determine the tax rates to be imposed on various goods and services. Goods for manufacture or resale are usually exempted from sales tax. Some other jurisdictions also exempt sales tax on foods sold in grocery shops, agricultural supplies and prescription medications. Sales tax greatly affects the spending of consumers, changes their consumption behavior and marketplace at the household level. 2.0. Literature Review There are many researches that have been done to show how the increase in sales tax affects personal consumption expenditure. Most of the results got from these researches have showed negative impacts on personal consumption expenditure. As Kevin 2001 puts it, this has been the case in the 2United States of America and the rest of the world. In a case study conducted in California in 2007, it was revealed that the best sales tax rate was 7.25%. This was a rapid increase from 6.6% in 2004 while in 1990s it was less than five percent. Most of this was taxed because of transport expenditures that were incurred during transportation of the goods or services. The estimation for the next year after 2007 was 7.75% tax rate and this was observed to be the trend to be followed unless the economy in the whole world is restructured since the people in California must rely on imported and exported goods and services. In this case study, the main objective shall be to show the effects of increased sales tax on the well-being of people in California. The methods that shall be used shall help to come up with resourceful data that shall be analyzed in depth. From the analysis, it shall be clear on the real effects that are caused by increased sales tax. Increase in tax rate has been there in California just as it is with other states in America. Some of the effects may be positive; however, many of them are negative. To the unemployed the situation is worse thus, there must be proposals to look into the issue deeper before it goes beyond recognition. From another research done in the same state to identify the much that is used for consumption by individual persons, according to Kanbur and Spence, it was found out that 65% of the spending per individual was on consumption. It was not, however, constant as it varied with genders and age. There were many reasons that were given for the high spending in consumption and the main one was increased sales ta

Friday, November 15, 2019

Unusual Presentation of Ewing’s Sarcoma

Unusual Presentation of Ewing’s Sarcoma D.V.Prasad1, Sanjay Mulay2, Krishna Badgire 3, *Abhinav S.Jadhav4, Deepak Datrange5, Sagar Jawale6, Arun alex7 ABSTRACT: Ewing’s sarcoma is a highly malignant, round cell neoplasm of uncertain origin. It is the sixth most common malignant tumor of bone. It must be distinguished from chronic osteomyelitis and other malignant round cell tumors like lymphoma, metastatic neuroblastoma and small cell osteosarcoma. Most patients are between 10 to 25years old; rarely patients are younger than age 5 years and older than age 40 years. We report a 55 years female who presented with swelling over right shoulder with pain and inability to move right shoulder later diagnosed as Ewing’s sarcoma of proximal part of humerus right side. The earlier diagnosis at this age may help in better management of the condition and prevent further complications and have better prognosis. KEY WORDS: Ewing’s sarcoma, Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), Ewing family of tumors (EFT), round cell tumor. INTRODUCTION: Ewing’s sarcoma is a highly malignant, round cell neoplasm of uncertain origin. It is the sixth most common malignant tumor of bone [1]. Most patients are between 10 to 25years old; rarely patients are younger than age 5 years and older than age 40 years. The present report is about rare presentation of Ewing’s sarcoma in a 55 years old female who presented with swelling over right shoulder with severe pain and inability to move right shoulder. CASE REPORT: A55 years old female, housewife, was presented with progressive swelling over right shoulder and difficulty in shoulder movements. Swelling was accompanied with severe pain which increased gradually over a period of 6 months. On examination, she was an average built female with swelling over right shoulder and upper part of right arm. Swelling was of 25x20cm size. It was a solitary swelling with local rise of temperature over swelling. Swelling was tender and variable in consistency. It was a non-mobile swelling. Redness and prominent superficial veins were visible over swelling over right shoulder and upper part of arm (Fig.1). Her hemoglobin levels were decreased and she had elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). Her renal function tests and liver function tests were towards lower normal range. X-ray right shoulder with arm shows round lytic lesion in head and upper part of humerus (Fig.2). MRI of right shoulder joint was suggestive of a 8.76.76.5 cm well defined, lobulated, expansile, lytic, lesion involving head and proximal shaft of right humerus, causing thinning and erosion of the cortex with breach at few places and narrow zone of transition, adjacent soft tissue extensions with edema and moderate right shoulder joint effusion. These findings are suggestive of Neoplastic mass involving proximal humerus with pathological fractures (Fig. 3) Histopathology report shows sheets of small round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, condensed chromatin and scanty eosinophilic cytoplasm with vaculisations with unremarkable bony trabeculae (Fig.4). Immuno-histochemistry is suggestive of Vimentin, CD99, S 100 positive and AE1/AE3 focally positive. Cytology report was suggestive of cytomorphological features positive for malignancy (Fig.5). Fig. 1: Clinical photograph of patient showing right shoulder swelling. Fig.2:X-ray right shoulder showing round lytic area in upper end of humerus. Fig. 3: MRI right shoulder T1W,T2W and STIR images showing expansile, lobulated, lytic lesion involving head and proximal part of humerus. Fig.4: Microscopic picture (40X) showing sheets of small round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, condensed chromatin and scanty eosinophilic cytoplasm. Fig.5: Cytology report showing cytomorphological features positive for malignancy DISCUSSION: In 1918 Arthur Purdy Stout described a tumor composed of small round cells with rosettes in Ulnar nerve [2], later on it became known as Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET). James Ewing described a tumor of diaphysis of long bones composed of undifferentiated cells and the tumor was radiosensitive [3]. Earlier Ewing’s sarcoma (ES) PNET were described as two separate entities, but in 1975 Angervall and Enzinger described extraskeletal tumor resembling to ES [4]and Jaffe et al. wrote an article on â€Å"the neuroectodermal tumor of bone† in 1984 [5]. Now it is known that ES and PNET show similar translocations and are considered to be ends of histological spectrum of Ewing’s family of tumors (EFT). Analysis of molecular techniques not only provided better understanding of biology but also help in developing better techniques in diagnosis and prospective potential treatment. Epidemology: EFT comprises 5 to 10 % of total bone tumors and is the 2nd most common tumor of childhood [6]. It occurs predominantly in young adults and children and shows a slight predilection for males [7].75% cases are seen between 10 to 25 years age of life. Youngest case reported so far was of 4.5 months old [8] and oldest case reported was 61 years old. Infancy cases are to be differentiated from metastatic neurofibroma. Sites: In 55% long bones it is usually diaphyseal lesion but also metaphyseodiaphyseal lesion can be seen. Flat bone (pelvis and ribs) involvement can also be seen. Less common sites of occurance are skull, vertebra and scapula. Presentation of Ewing’s sarcoma: Pain, Swelling and fever are the presenting symptoms. X-ray shows permeative pattern of bone involvement (boundary between uninvolved bone and area of bone destruction and bone is broad, vague imperceptible). All types of periosteal reactions seen like onion peel, moth eaten, honey combed, fine and reticulated [1]. Biopsy Ideally core biopsy is done, if repeated attempts of core biopsy fails open biopsy is done. FNAC not recommended in case of Ewing’s sarcoma. Frozen section studies opted in selected cases only as freezing of tissue distorts the morphology. Fixation of tissue is done in 10% formalin. Inadequate fixation leads to loss of antigen, so inconclusive results on immunohistochemistry and also causes autolysis and degeneration of DNA thus making molecular analysis difficult. Ratio of specimen to formalin is 1:10. Histology: It is prototype of small round cell tumor growth. It is composed of sheets of small cells with increased nuclear to cytoplasm ratio. Cytoplasm is scanty, eosinophilic, and detected by periodic acid Schiff (PAS), contains glycogen and diastase degradable. Occasional rosette formation are seen and frequently undergoes necrosis and residual viable cells show perithetiomatous or perivascular distribution.EFT tumor cells can be large with irregular nuclear membrane and prominent nucleoli [9]. EFT cells show membrane expression of CD99 /MIC 2 on immunohistochemistry [10]. Antibody against FLI-1 is seen in nucleus of tumor cells which is specific for diagnosis of EFT [11]. Tumor cells may show neuron specific enolase (NSE), synaptophysin and s-100 protein. Family of EFT includes -1)non hodgekin’s lymphoma 2)rhabdomyosarcoma 3)synovial sarcoma 4)messenchymal chondrosarcoma 5)desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) 6)retinoblastoma. False positive cd99 screening is seen in other cases as well hence CD99, FLI1 and NSE to be positive for diagnosis of EFT/PNET. Molecular genetics: Translocation t (11:22) (q24:q22) is seen in 85 % cases. Fusion of EWS gene on 22q12 with FLI-1 on 11q24 results in chimeric fusion transcript EWS-FLI1 [12]. EWS-FLI1 induces insulin like growth factor (IGF-1). Phospholipase D2 (PLD2) and Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1 (PTPL1) are expressed in increased levels. Thus tumor cells escape from apoptosin and growth inhibition. Therapeutic targets: EWS-FLI1 fusion is to be targeted and split. Monoclonal antibodies against IGF -1 are being tried as it is associated with EFT growth [13] and PLD 2, PTPL1 are other conceivable candidates as both are highly expressed in EFT [14]. Chemotherapy in ES: There is no universally accepted staging. American joint committee on cancer (AJCC) suggests that primary bone or extra skeletal Ewing’s sarcoma may be included with their respective bone or soft-tissue sarcoma staging (STS) systems [15]. Although AJCC staging includes metastatic disease and tumor size greater or less than 8 cm; nodal status and grade are irrelevant for ES because it rarely spreads by lymph nodes and by definition of ES is high grade tumor [15]. Most of centers use presence or absence of metastasis at the time of diagnosis, as main tool for planning the treatment. Prognostic factors: 1) tumor site and size 2) age and gender 3) serum LDH levels ES in distal extremity has better prognosis than proximal extremity. ES in central location (pelvis) has worst prognosis [16] [17] [18]. Tumor volume 100-200ml- large tumor has bad prognosis. Girls have better prognosis than boys [18]. Increased serum LDH levels at time of diagnosis with large tumor with metastatic disease has worse prognosis. Metastasis in lungs alone has prognosis better than metastasis in extra-pulmonary sites. Patient with minimal tumor or no residual tumor after preoperative chemotherapy incline towards better prognosis. Evolution of chemotherapy: Adjuvant therapy: Vincristine + Actinomycin D + Cyclophosphamide (VAC). Intergroup Ewing’s sarcoma study (IESS): VAC + doxorubicin. IESS trial –II demonstrated that intermittent high doses of VAC + doxorubicin was superior to continuous moderate dose therapy with this agents [19].VAC+ doxorubicin alternating with Ifosfamide and Eloposide (IE) has better prognosis. There is no role of dose intensification. Current trend: Alternating cycles of VAC IE every 3 weeks for 48 weeks with local control at 9-12 weeks [20] is to be administered. There is no role of dose compression (decrease in duration of cycles).There is some role of stem cell in preliminary stage of management. Local therapy: Surgical resection with or without limb salvage followed by Radiotherapy and then chemotherapy is given. Chemotherapy remains back bone of the T/t for Ewing’s sarcoma, local T/t with surgery /or radiotherapy has important role in management of ES. The outcome of management is better in localized ES as compared to elusive outcome in metastatic disease or local recurrence. This case is presented in view of rarity to increase suspicion index for the presence of Ewing’s sarcoma. Early detection of Ewing’s sarcoma as chemotherapy and radiotherapy can limit further damage and progression of the disease can be done. REFERENCES: Joseph M. Mirra, Piero Picci: Ewing’s sarcoma In: Bone tumors- clinical, radiologic, and pathologic correlations, volume two, Lea Febiger, Philadelphia, London1989, pp. 1088-1094. Stout AP. A tumor of the ulnar nerve. Proc NY Pathol Soc 1918; 12:2-12. Ewing J. Diffuse endothelioma of bone. Proc NY Pathol Soc 1921; 21:17-24. Angervall L, Enzinger FM. Extraskeletal neoplasm resembling Ewing’s sarcoma. Cancer 1975; 36:240-51. Jaffe R, Santamaria M, Yunis EJ, Tannery NH, Agostini RM Jr, Medina j, era/. The neuroectodermal tumor of bone. Am j Surg Pathol 1984; 8:885-98. Gurney JG, Swensen AR, Bulterys M. Malignant bone tumors. In: Ries LA, etal, editors. Cancer incidence and survival among children and adolescents: United States SEER Program 1975- 1995. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer institute. SEER Program. NIH Pub. No. 99-4649; 1999. p. 99-110. Zamora P, Garcia de Paredes ML, Gonzalez Baron M, Diaz MA, Escobar Y, Ordonez A, et al. Ewings tumor in brothers. An unusual observation. AmJ Clin Oncol 1986; 9:358-60. Kim, T.E., Ghazi G. Atkinson G. ct al.: Ewings sarcoma of a lower extremity in an infant: A therapeutic dilemma. Cancer, 5c: 187, 1986. Nascimento AG, Unii KK, Pritchard DJ, Cooper KL, Dahlin DC. A clinicopathologic study of 20 cases of large-cell (atypical) Ewings sarcoma of bone. AmJ Surg Pathol 1980; 4:29-36. Khoury JD. Ewing sarcoma family of tumors. Adv Anat Pathol 2005; 12:212-20. Nilsson G, Wang M, Wejde J, Kreicbergs A, Larsson O. Detection of EWS/FL1-1 by immunostaining. An adjunctive tool in diagnosis of Ewing’s sarcoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumour on cytological samples and paraffin-embedded archival material. Sarcoma 1999; 3:25-32. Delattre O, Zucman J, Plougastel B, Desmaze C, MelotT, Peter M, et al. Gene fusion with an ETS DNA-binding domain caused by chromosome translocation in human tumours. Nature 1992; 359:162-5. Ludwig JA. Ewing sarcoma: Historical perspectives, current state-of-the-art, and opportunities for targeted therapy in the future. Curr Opin Oncol 2008; 20:412-8. Abaan OD, Levenson A, Khan O, Furth PA, Uren A, Toretsky JA. PTPL1 is a direct transcriptional target of EWS-FL11 and modulates Ewing’s Sarcoma tumorigenesis. Oncogene 2005; 24:2715-22. Greene FL, Page DL, Fleming ID , A. Fritz, C.M Balch, D.G. Haller et al, eds. AJCC cancer staging Manual. 6th ed. New York, NY: Springer; 2002. Rodriguez –Galindo C, Liu T, Krasin MJ, Wu J, Billups CA, Daw NC, et al. Analysis of prognostic factors in Ewing’s sarcoma family of tumors: review of St. Jude children’s research hospital studies cancer 2007; 1 10:375-84. Cotterill SJ, Ahrens S, Paulussen M, Jurgens HF, Voute PA, Gadner H et al. Prognostic factors in Ewing’s tumor of bone: analysis of 975patient from the European intergroup cooperative Ewing’s sarcoma study group. J clin oncol 2000; 18:3108-14. Bacci G, Longhi A, Ferrari S, Mercuri M, Versari M, Bertoni F. Prognostic factors in non-metastatic Ewing’s sarcoma tumor of bone: An analysis of 579 patients treated at a single at a single institution with adjuvant or neo-adjuvant chemotherapy between 1972 and 1998.Acta oncol 2006; 45:469-75. Burgert EO Jr, Nesbit ME , Garnsey LA , Gehan EA, Herrmann J, Vietti TJ, et al. Multimodal therapy for management of non-pelvic , localized Ewing’s sarcoma of bone :intergroup study IESS-II. J Clin Oncol 1990; 8:1514-24. Granowetter L, Womer R, Devidas M, Karlio M, Wang C, Bernstein M, et al. Dose –intensified compared with standard chemotherapy for non-metastatic Ewing’s sarcoma family of tumors: a children’s oncology group study. J clin oncol 2009; 27:2536-41.